Qubit’s “jigsaw piece” brings quantum computers one step closer

UNSW Sydney’s quantum engineers have removed the major obstacles that have hindered the realization of quantum computers. They have discovered a new technology that they say can control millions of spin qubits, the basic unit of information for silicon quantum processors. ..

To date, quantum computer engineers and scientists have used proof-of-concept models of quantum processors by demonstrating the control of only a handful of qubits.

However, with the latest research presented today at Science Advances, the team considers it a “missing jigsaw piece” of quantum computer architecture that allows control of millions of qubits required for highly complex calculations. I found something.

Dr. Jarryd Pla, a faculty member at UNSW’s School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, says his research team wants to solve the problems that have plagued quantum computer scientists for decades. Generates more wiring, more electricity usage, and more heat.

“Up to this point, the control of electron spin qubits relied on supplying a microwave magnetic field by passing an electric current through the wire next to the qubit,” says Dr. Phra.

“If you want to scale up to the millions of qubits that quantum computers need to solve globally important problems, such as designing new vaccines, this poses some real challenges.”

“First, the magnetic field drops very quickly with distance, so you can only control the cubits closest to the wires. That is, the more qubits you capture, the more wires you need to add, and more on the chip. Will occupy the area of. “

Also, because the chip needs to operate at temperatures below freezing below -270 ° C, Dr. Pla said adding more wires would generate too much heat inside the chip, compromising qubit reliability. increase.

“That’s why this wire technology gives us control over only a few qubits,” says Dr. Pula.

I’ve got it

The solution to this problem included a complete rethinking of the silicon chip structure.

The team placed thousands of control wires on a silicon chip of the same thumbnail size, creating a magnetic field from above the chip that could manipulate all qubits at the same time, rather than having to contain millions of qubits. I considered the possibility of doing it.

The idea of ​​controlling all qubits at the same time was first proposed by quantum computing scientists in the 1990s, but so far no one has come up with a practical way to do this. There was no one.

“We first removed the wire next to the qubit and then came up with a new way to supply a microwave-frequency magnetic field throughout the system. Therefore, in principle, we can provide a control field of up to 4 million qubits.” Said Dr. Pla.

Dr. Pula and his team have introduced a new component called a quartz prism, called a dielectric resonator, directly above the silicon chip. When the microwave is directed at the resonator, it focuses on a much smaller size of microwave wavelength.

“Dielectric resonators reduce wavelengths to less than a millimeter, allowing microwave power to be converted very efficiently into a magnetic field that controls the spin of all cubics.

“There are two important innovations here. The first is that you don’t have to put in a lot of power to get the qubit’s powerful drive field. This is a lot of heat. This means it doesn’t happen. The second is that the fields are so uniform across the chip that millions of cubits all experience the same level of control. “

Quantum team up

Dr. Pula and his team developed a prototype resonator technology, but lacked a silicon qubit to test it. There he spoke with Professor Andrew Dzurak of Science, a colleague in UNSW’s engineering department. Over the last decade, his team has demonstrated the first and most accurate quantum logic using the same silicon manufacturing techniques used to manufacture traditional computer chips.

“I was completely impressed when Jarryd came up with his new idea,” says Professor Dzurak.

“We have two of the best PhD students from my team, Ensar Vahapoglu and Jarryd’s James Slack-Smith, involved in the project.

“We were overjoyed when the experiment proved successful. The question of how to control millions of qubits is a major factor in building a full-fledged quantum computer. It has been annoying me for a long time because it was an obstacle. “

Once dreamed of in the 1980s, quantum computers that use thousands of qubits to solve commercially important problems may now be within a decade. Beyond that, they are expected to bring new firepower to solve global challenges and develop new technologies due to their ability to model highly complex systems.

Climate change, drug and vaccine design, code decoding, and artificial intelligence can all benefit from quantum computing technology.

Future outlook

The team then plans to use this new technology to simplify the design of short-term silicon quantum processors.

“Removing the on-chip control wire frees up space for additional qubits and all other electronics needed to build quantum processors. It’s much easier to get to the steps, ”says Professor Dzurak.

“There are engineering challenges to solve before we can build a million qubit processors, but we’re excited about the fact that there are ways to control them,” says Dr. Pula.

reference: Single electron spin resonance in nanoelectronic devices using Vahapoglu E, Slack-Smith JP, Leon RCC, and other global fields. Sci Adv.. 2021; 7 (33): eabg9158. Doi: 10.1126 / sciadv.abg9158

This article was republished from material.. Note: The material may have been edited in length and content. Please contact the citation source for more information.

Qubit’s “jigsaw piece” brings quantum computers one step closer

Source link Qubit’s “jigsaw piece” brings quantum computers one step closer

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